• Vincenzo Inzillo
  • Floriano De Rango
  • Alfonso Ariza Quintana




Beamforming, Adaptive Array, Energy Consumption, MANET, LMS, Co-Simulation, Omnet , Matlab.


Smart Antenna Systems (SAS) are largely employed in wireless networks for their capabilities to provide very high performances with respect to omnidirectional antennas. The use of adaptive array Smart Antenna could bring to enhance aspects such as energy management, especially in Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET), when the network performance closely depends on the battery life of the mobile nodes as well as on the routing protocol features. In this paper, we propose a new adaptive array Smart Antenna System that improves some Ad Hoc Distance Vector (AODV) network protocol features through a mechanism of energy consumption optimization. The system implements the Least Mean Square (LMS) as adaptive algorithm; for this purpose, we perform a co-simulation between Matlab, that implements the LMS algorithm and Omnet++, that provides a complete simulation environment for MANET.


H. Xiao, D. Ibrahim, B. Christianson, “Energy consumption in mobile ad hoc networks,” in Procedings of the IEEE International Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC), 2014, pp. 2599-2604.

M. Palav, M. Bhosale, “Energy consumption in MANETs using energy efficient AODV protocol,” Int. Journ. of Adv. Res. in Comp. Eng. and Techn. (IJARCET), vol. 3, issue 4, pp. 1463-1468, 2014.

S. Kafhali, A. Haqiq, “Effect of mobility and traffic models on the energy consumption in MANET routing protocols,” Int. Journ. of Soft. Comp. and Eng. (IJSCE), vol. 3, issue 1, pp. 242-249, 2013.

C. Sun, X. Gao, S. Jin, M. Mattahiou, “Beam division multiple access transmission for massive MIMO communications,” IEEE Trans. on Communications, vol. 63, issue 6, pp. 2170-2184, 2015.

E. Perahia, B. Douglas, D. Pignatelli, D. Stephenson, “Spatial division multiple access for wireless networks,” U.S. Patent 9131029, 2014.

J. Litva, K.-Y. Lo, Digital Beamforming in Wireless Communications, Artech House, 2012.

B. Sharma, T. Indranilsarkar, P. Bhattacharya, “An introduction to smart antenna system,” Int. Journal of Business & Eng. Research, vol. 8, pp. 22-26, 2014.

Y. Zhou, Y. Xiaohui, “A novel adaptive beamforming algorithm for smart antenna system,” in Proceedings of the Int. Conference of Computational Intelligence and Security (CIS), 2016.

S. Chandran, Adaptive Antenna Arrays: Trends and Applications, Springer Science & Business Media, 2013.

M. Hanaoui, A. Mounir Rifi, “Directional Communications with Smart Antenna System to Improve Energy Efficiency in Wireless Sensor Networks,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Electrical and Information Technologies (ICEIT), Tangiers, Morocco, 4-7 May 2016.

V. Kristem, N. B. Mehta, A. Molisch, “Training for antenna selection in time-varying channels,” IEEE Trans. on Communications, vol. 61, issue 6, pp. 2295-2305, 2013.

Y. Zhu, Z. Zeng, T. Zhang, L. Xiao, “Transmission mode selection for energy saving in the comp system with semi-smart antenna,” in Proceedings of the Int. Symp. on Comm. and Infor. Techn., (ISCIT), 2012.

A. S. Oluwole, V. M. Srivastava, “Analysis of smart antenna with improved signal quality and spatial processing,” in Proceedings of the Progress in Electr. Research Symposium (PIERS), August 2016.

R. Sahu, R. Mohan, S. Shrama, “Evaluation of adaptive beamforming algorithm of smart antenna,” Int. Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, vol. 3, issue 9, pp. 592-599, 2013.

S. P. Kulkarni, V. Bhavani, “Study on smart antenna systems and implementation in mobile ad hoc networks,” Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, vol. 4, issue 5, pp. 97-101, 2014.

F. Kidane, T. Abreha, D. Mali, “Smart antenna techniques for interference suppression in WCDMA using LMS algorithm,” International Journal of Computing Science and Communication Technologies, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 916-922, July 2013.

A. Arifuzzman, R. Islam, M. Tarique, “Window based smart antenna design for mobile ad hoc network routing protocol,” Int. Journal of Wireless & Mobile Networks (IJWMN), vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 63-80, August 2015.

M. A. Abdala, A. K. Al Zuhairy, “Integration of smart antenna systems in mobile ad hoc networks,” International Journal of Machine Learning and Computing, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 342-346, August 2013.

S. Das, “Smart antenna design for wireless communication using adaptive beamforming approach,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference TENCON, 19-21 November 2011.

N. G. R. Reddy, K. R. Devi, “Smart antennas adaptive beamforming through statistical signal processing techniques,” Int. Journ. of Research in Computer and Comm. Tech., vol. 2, issue 8, pp. 400-405, 2013.

S. Hossain, M. Islam, S. Serikawa, “Adaptive beamforming algorithms for smart antenna systems,” in Proceedings of the Int. Conf. on Control Automation and Systems, Seoul, 2008.

B. Widrow, P. E. Mantey, L. J. Griffiths, and B. B. Goode, “Adaptive antenna systems,” in Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 55, pp. 2143–2159, 1967.

S. Haykin, Adaptive Filter Theory, Prentice Hall, 2002.

M. Bhotto, A. Zulfiquar, I. Bajić, “Constant modulus blind adaptive beamforming based on unscented Kalman filtering,” IEEE Signal Processing Letters, vol. 22, issue4, pp. 474-478, 2015.

Xu Wang, Method of Steepest Descent and its Applications, Tennessee, 2011.

V. Inzillo, F. De Rango, “A directional mac approach extending Omnet++ simulator,” in Proceedings of the Summer Comp. Sim. Conf. (SCSC), 2016.

Omnet++ Network Simulator 5.0 Version.

MATLAB, Release 2014b.

V. Inzillo, F. De Rango, A. Quintana, “A new variable error metric adaptive beamforming algorithm for smart antenna systems,” in Proceedings of the International Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing Conference (IWCMC), 2017.




How to Cite

Inzillo, V., De Rango, F., & Ariza Quintana, A. (2017). A LOW ENERGY CONSUMPTION SMART ANTENNA ADAPTIVE ARRAY SYSTEM FOR MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS. International Journal of Computing, 16(3), 124-132. https://doi.org/10.47839/ijc.16.3.895