A Study on Internet of Things Devices Vulnerabilities using Shodan


  • V.R Rajasekar
  • S Rajkumar




Internet of Things, Vulnerability assessment, Risk Analysis, Shodan, Octave Allegro, CVE


IoT has attracted a diverse range of applications due to its adaptability, flexibility, and scalability. However, the most significant barriers to IoT adoption are security, privacy, interoperability, and a lack of standards. Due to the persistent online connectivity and lack of security measures, adversaries can quickly attack IoT systems for various adversarial operations, financial gain, and access to sensitive data. We conducted a massive vulnerability scan on IoT devices using Shodan, the IoT search engine. The discovered vulnerabilities are analyzed using the Octave Allegro risk assessment method to determine the risk level (Critical, High, Moderate, Low, None), and the results are classified based on the vulnerabilities. The research findings are intriguing, shocking, and alarming, revealing the bitter reality that IoT devices are rapidly increasing while simultaneously eroding users' privacy on a never-before-seen scale. Our search discovered 13,558 webcams with outdated components, 11,090 devices disclosing NAT-PMP information, and 16,356 connected devices responding to remote telnet access. Around 2,456 IoT devices were found with the Heartbleed vulnerability, 674 with the Ticketbleed vulnerability, and 9,241 with expired SSL certificates. Nearly 18,638 IoT consumer devices are configured with insecure default settings; 11,481 devices with default SNMP agent community names; 4,987 devices running on non-standard ports; and 4,425 Cisco devices are configured with generic or default passwords.


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How to Cite

Rajasekar, V., & Rajkumar, S. (2023). A Study on Internet of Things Devices Vulnerabilities using Shodan. International Journal of Computing, 22(2), 149-158. https://doi.org/10.47839/ijc.22.2.3084